Elbow Dysplasia & Arthroscopy
Maximise your pet’s chances of a successful outcome with over 20 years of collective arthroscopy experience
Fixed-price fees for dogs with suspected or confirmed elbow dysplasia (medial coronoid process disease)
These fees include the initial consultation, a CT scan of both elbows, anaesthesia, surgery (arthroscopy) and hospitalisation charges. They include VAT at 20%. These fees assume a healthy pet with a routine elbow problem; we reserve the right to charge additional fees if other health concerns warrant additional investigations/care. Brachycephalic breeds (such as bulldogs and pugs) will also incur additional fees due to the added complexity of their anaesthesia (click here for further information on brachycephalic anaesthesia).
Elbow dysplasia is a general term which describes a number of specific conditions that affect the elbow of growing dogs and lead to elbow osteoarthritis (OA). The most common of these conditions is a condition known as Fragmented Coronoid Process (FCP) or just ‘coronoid disease’. The coronoid process is part of the ulna (which along with the humerus and the radius are the bones which make up the elbow) and bone fragments can form in this area and cause lameness.
Coronoid disease can affect many different breeds of dog but large breeds are most often affected, particularly Labradors, Golden Retrievers and Rottweilers. Signs of forelimb lameness and/or elbow stiffness are often first seen at around 5-8 months of age but can be later. It is appropriate to treat the initial episode of lameness with a period of rest and anti-inflammatory pain killers (known as NSAIDs, pronounced ‘en-sades’). If lameness persists or is recurrent than x-rays are often taken. X-rays do not allow specific assessment of the coronoid process but they are useful to rule-out other conditions of the elbow and they will often (but not always) show evidence of secondary OA which is a good indicator that elbow pathology is present. In order to characterise the pathology however, further investigations will be required and this will generally require referral to an orthopaedic specialist.
X-rays can give an idea of whether an elbow is normal or not but will rarely provide a specific diagnosis. The preferred investigations for dogs with suspected coronoid disease are computed tomography (CT) and arthroscopy. CT is a high-tech form of x-ray imaging which provides much greater detail than traditional x-rays and is sometimes referred to as a ‘CAT scan’. CT provides very good detail of the bones making up the elbow allowing the identification of fragments, small fissure fractures in the coronoid process and problems with the alignment of the bones at the elbow. Arthroscopy is a minimally-invasive surgical procedure where small endoscopes are passed into the joint allowing the cartilaginous joint surfaces to be visualised on a monitor. Arthroscopic images are magnified and fluid is used to flush away blood meaning that the detail seen is much greater than could be seen with the naked eye via a traditional open surgery. Arthroscopy therefore allows accurate assessment of the joint surfaces for cartilage wear which often affects the coronoid process and sometimes also the opposite joint surface on the humeral condyle. Because arthroscopy is ‘key-hole’ surgery, the risks of wound complications and infection are very low (the infection risk is <1% at Anderson Moores).
Studies show that the combination of CT with arthroscopy will identify more lesions of the coronoid process than either technique alone. Our standard protocol at Anderson Moores is therefore to advise CT and arthroscopy to fully evaluate the elbow. Elbow dysplasia frequently affects both elbows and if this is supported by the clinical examination and/or x-rays we will frequently investigate both elbows at the same time. Because the surgery is ‘key-hole’, most dogs are up and walking and able to go home the same day as surgery, even if both elbows are treated.
As well as providing valuable diagnostic information about the elbow, arthroscopy also allows minimally-invasive treatment of coronoid disease. The type of treatment is dependent on the type of pathology present and thus is determined on the basis of the CT and arthroscopy. Arthroscopic treatment may involve the removal of bone fragments from the elbow, the removal of diseased parts of the coronoid process and the removal of cartilage flaps (OCD flaps). Very occasionally additional procedures such as osteotomy (cutting) of a bone (usually the ulna) may be required if there is incongruity (malalignment) of the bones at the level of the elbow resulting in an abnormal distribution of forces on the joint surfaces.
The prognosis for coronoid disease is variable and seems to be dependent on the type of pathology present. Those dogs with fragmentation of the coronoid process and otherwise relatively healthy joint cartilage have a good prognosis for improvement, although over the long term elbow OA will progress and in some of these dogs will cause further signs of lameness/stiffness later in life. In dogs with marked wear/erosion of the joint cartilage the prognosis is more uncertain but many dogs will still improve following treatment.
Click here to check out our easy guide to assessing if an elbow is normal or not